7 Lesson n°7

7.1 Correction de l’examen de mi-semestre

Download L2midterm-correction.pdf

7.2 Homework: correction

Listen to the following words and transcribe them:


Listen to the following words and transcribe them:


7.3 Back to assimilation

7.3.1 Directions of assimilation


  • “ten men”
  • “happens”
  • “raise your glass”

Can you categorize those assimilations?

  • Regressive/lagging assimilation
  • Progressive/leading assimilation
  • Reciprocal assimilation

7.4 Types d’influence

Trouvez les endroits où peuvent se produire des assimilations, et tentez de les classer :

wet blanket
night cap
weed killer
have to
join the army
fail the test

7.4.1 The three types

  1. place assimilations

  2. energy assimilations

  3. manner assimilations

7.4.2 Place assimilations

Cf. most previous examples.

By far the most common type of assimilation in English.

7.4.3 Manner assimilations

In English, it is usually a form containing a fricative which is replaced by a nasal or a lateral.

Another example: “till they meet again”.

7.4.4 Energy assimilations

These involve a reduction of the fortis/lenis contrast (voiced/voiceless).

In English, EA:

  • only goes from lenis to fortis, never the other way round (“back door” or “not bad”)

  • is rare in stressed syllables, cf:

    • have to”, “used to”, where EA has now become compulsory.

7.5 Homework

Identify the connected speech assimilations likely to occur in the following sequences:

it was spectacular
of course
if she chooses to wait
the waiter’s forgotten us
Helen could have talked to him
as she sometimes did